The correct use of diesel diesel should be the same as that of marine diesel. The diesel also has different labels. The difference is that the gasoline label refers to the octane content, and the diesel label is based on the freezing point of diesel. At present, the light diesel oil commonly used in China is divided into six numbers according to the freezing point: 5# diesel, 0# diesel, -10# diesel, -20# diesel, -35# diesel and -50# diesel. In general, 5# diesel is suitable for use when the temperature is above 8 °C; 0# diesel is suitable for use when the temperature is between 8 °C and 4 °C; -10# diesel is suitable for use when the temperature is between 4 °C and -5 °C; 20# diesel is suitable for use at temperatures from -5 °C to -14 °C; -35# diesel is suitable for use at temperatures from -14 °C to -29 °C; -50# diesel is suitable for temperatures from -29 °C to -44 °C Or use below this temperature. If the diesel fuel is not suitable for the temperature range, the diesel system in the diesel engine may wax and block the oil circuit, which will affect the normal operation of the diesel engine. The lower the marking of diesel, the less likely it is to wax, and of course the higher the price. The low temperature in winter makes the viscosity of diesel oil increase, the fluidity is deteriorated, and it is not easy to spray, resulting in poor atomization and incomplete combustion, resulting in a decrease in the power and economic performance of the diesel engine. Therefore, light diesel with low freezing point and good fire should be used in winter. The selection of diesel fuel should be determined mainly according to the temperature of the use interval. Generally, the freezing point of diesel should be lower than the local minimum temperature of 7 °C to 10 °C. The engine oil should be selected in the winter to use low-condensation point oil. When starting, the machine can be heated by the external water bath to increase the oil temperature. Do not use an open flame to bake the oil sump, so as to avoid the deterioration of the oil in the oil sump, and lose the lubricating performance, which will aggravate the wear of the diesel engine and shorten the service life. The starting method should not be started with an open flame in the appropriate winter. The air filter should not be removed. The cotton yarn is ignited with diesel oil and then fired into the intake pipe to perform the combustion start. The hazard is that during the starting process, the dusty air from the outside enters the cylinder, causing abnormal wear of the piston, cylinder and other parts, and damaging the diesel engine. Before the diesel engine enters the working state, it must be preheated. After the diesel engine is started in the winter, it should be idling at low and medium speed for 3 to 5 minutes. When the temperature of the cooling water reaches 60 °C or above, the load can be operated. Do not operate at low temperature, because the diesel engine just started, because the body temperature is low, the viscosity of the oil is large, the oil does not enter the friction surface of the moving pair, resulting in dry grinding, which may cause the diesel engine to pull the cylinder and other faults. Pay attention to the low temperature of the body insulation in winter, which is easy to overcool the diesel engine. In the northern region, the use of diesel engines in winter cannot use the "outer circulation" cooling method, so that the body temperature of the diesel engine will be low, failing to reach the normal working temperature, affecting the power and economy of the diesel engine. Reasonable maintenance of the diesel engine to adjust the valve foot clearance to ensure that the cylinder compression pressure cylinder compression pressure is reduced, which will reduce the diesel engine power. Check the cylinder compression pressure, start the diesel engine running at low speed to about 80 °C, remove the injector, install a 60kg/cm2 pressure gauge, and use the starter to turn the diesel engine. The maximum reading of the pressure gauge is the compression of the cylinder. pressure. After the compression pressure reduction fault occurs, in addition to the factors such as the damage of the cylinder head gasket and the incorrect installation of the piston ring, it is first considered whether the valve foot clearance is appropriate, because the valve foot clearance is closely related to the cylinder compression pressure and power performance of the diesel engine. If the clearance is too small, the valve closing is not strict, the cylinder pressure is lowered, the compressed air temperature is low, the atomized diesel can not be completely burned, and the diesel engine is not working; the gap is too large, resulting in insufficient intake, poor exhaust, and reduced working efficiency. When the diesel engine is working, the valve and the valve seat are worn out in the corrosion and mutual impact of the high-temperature and high-pressure combustion gas. Therefore, the diesel engine air distribution mechanism must be regularly maintained, especially the inspection and adjustment of the valve foot clearance. Prevent abnormal exhaust, ensure energy-saving and environmentally friendly diesel engine in the daily use process, pay attention to the exhaust pipe exhaust situation, abnormal, should promptly identify the cause and eliminate it. Five kinds of abnormal exhaust phenomena common in diesel engines: 1. Diesel engine exhaust pipe emits yellow smoke. The main feature is that the yellow smoke is emitted at the initial stage of the start-up operation, and gradually decreases or disappears after the temperature rises or the load increases. The performance is easy to turn off when the idling speed, the body is shaken, and the intake pipe "helium", the exhaust pipe is released, the diesel engine is insufficiently powered, and the starting is difficult. The main reason is that part of the intake and exhaust valves are not tightly closed or the valve spring is too weak, the valve push rod is bent, the intake and exhaust valves are ablated, and the injector and the seat hole are not tightly sealed; the second is the camshaft journal and the seat hole. If the clearance is too large or the phase of the valve is out of alignment, most of the valves are burnt; the third is that the cylinder liner and the piston ring are worn too much. 2. The exhaust pipe of the diesel engine emits black smoke. This phenomenon occurs because the diesel injected into the cylinder is poorly atomized and the combustion is not completely caused. The unburned diesel fuel becomes carbon particles and is discharged with the exhaust gas at a high temperature. Black smoke is often accompanied by a decrease in the power of the diesel engine, a heavy exhaust sound, and a high water temperature, resulting in wear of the diesel engine and shortening the service life of the diesel engine. The main reason is that the compression pressure of the cylinder is low, which is usually caused by the misalignment of the valve foot; the second is that the diesel engine is overheated, the air density is reduced, the actual intake air volume is reduced, the ratio of air to diesel is out of balance; the third is excessive oil supply. When the diesel engine is overloaded, the governor fuel injection assembly will automatically supply additional overloaded oil to overcome the temporary overload. 3. The exhaust pipe of the diesel engine emits white smoke. This phenomenon indicates that some of the diesel fuel is too low in temperature, the diesel atomization is poor, and the unburned part is discharged from the exhaust pipe. The main reason is: the injection time is too late, the injector has dripping when the fuel is injected, the injection pressure is too low, the atomization is poor, the diesel engine temperature is low, and part of the diesel fuel injected into the cylinder is neither burned nor charred, and is discharged with the exhaust gas. white. Another possibility is that the quality of the diesel oil is too poor, the water in the diesel oil, the cylinder head, the cylinder block, the cylinder liner have cracks or the cylinder head warp causes the cooling water in the water jacket to enter the combustion chamber, and the diesel exhaust pipe will also emit white smoke. . The difference between the two is that the white smoke from the former has an oily taste, and the white smoke from the latter has a light or no oily taste. 4. Diesel engine exhaust pipe emits blue smoke. This phenomenon occurs because the combustion chamber is burnt with excessive oil. Commonly known as 窜 oil, there are several reasons for this: First, the oil level exceeds the standard scale of the oil dipstick, the oil splashes into the cylinder wall with the high-speed crankshaft, and breaks into the combustion chamber; second, the cylinder, piston and piston ring are excessively worn. The oil is caused by the oil flowing along the cylinder wall to the combustion chamber. 5. The diesel engine exhaust pipe is on fire. It can be seen clearly at night. The main reason is that the diesel combustion is not complete in the power stroke, the diesel engine enters the exhaust stroke and will be discharged from the combustion mixture; secondly, part of the injector plunger and the delivery valve are seriously worn; or the exhaust valve may be closed. Not strict, the valve spring is too weak or broken and the valve foot clearance is too small. Pay attention to the use of details to maintain the water temperature of the diesel engine outlet. The normal outlet temperature of the diesel engine is 65 °C ~ 95 °C. At present, the water temperature of the marine diesel engine is generally too low, so that the diesel can not be completely burned, the viscosity of the oil is large, the running resistance of the diesel engine is correspondingly increased, and the diesel consumption is increased. The oil increases; the water temperature is too high, the diesel engine is overheated, the intake air is insufficient, the cylinder compression pressure is lowered, and the diesel combustion is incomplete, which also increases the fuel consumption. The main measures are to remove the scale in the cooling system; the second is to inject soft water into the cooling system; the third is to keep the thermostat working properly. The purpose of maintaining the optimum fuel supply angle of the diesel engine in advance is to enable the diesel to burn fully. The diesel fuel supply advance angle refers to the crank angle from the moment when the fuel injection pump plunger starts to supply oil to the time when the piston reaches the top dead center. If the fuel supply advance angle is too large or too small, the diesel engine power will drop and the work performance will be poor. The fuel supply advance angle is determined by the camshaft of the fuel injection pump relative to the crankshaft position. Therefore, the fuel supply advance angle can be achieved by changing the phase of the crankshaft and the camshaft. The law is: when the camshaft is ahead of the crankshaft, the oil supply is advanced; otherwise, it is delayed. The change of the fuel supply advance angle is sensitive to the impact of fuel economy. Appropriately reducing the fuel supply advance angle is beneficial to the fuel economy and the lift (lower) plunger method. This method is mostly used for small diesel engine oil return hole adjustment type fuel injection pump. When the plunger is raised, the timing is advanced; otherwise, it is delayed. The lifting of the plunger is achieved by adjusting the head height of the plunger. On-time maintenance of the diesel engine "three-filter" diesel engine is equipped with air filter, oil filter and diesel filter, fishermen used to call it "three filters." Whether the "three filters" work is good or bad, directly affects the service life and working performance of the diesel engine. If the filtration effect is not good, mechanical impurities and dust particles will enter the internal motion of the diesel engine with air, diesel, and oil, causing serious consequences such as shortened service life of the diesel engine. 1. Air filter is a "protective umbrella" to prevent dusty air from entering the cylinder. It can effectively avoid abnormal wear of the piston and cylinder wall and ensure the normal operation of the diesel engine. Air filters can be divided into inertial, filter, and integrated forms. Most of the small diesel engines use a dry filter air filter, and the dry filter air filter device is composed of a paper filter element and a sealing gasket. Should pay attention to the use: 1 regular inspection, is to ensure clean. When removing the dust on the paper filter, apply a soft brush to remove the dust on the surface of the filter along the direction of the crease, and gently tap the end face to remove the dust. When doing the above, use a clean cloth or rubber stopper to block the ends of the filter element to prevent splashed dust from entering the inner surface of the filter element. When conditions permit, you can also use compressed air or an air pump (the air pressure must not exceed 0.2Mpa to 0.3Mpa to prevent damage to the filter paper) from the inside of the filter element to blow off the dust adhering to the outer surface of the filter element. 2 Do not use water or diesel or gasoline to clean the paper filter. Otherwise, the filter element pores are blocked and the air resistance is increased. At the same time, the diesel oil is easy to suck into the cylinder, causing the vehicle to start after the installation. 3 When the filter element is found to be damaged, or the upper and lower end faces of the filter element are warped, or the rubber seal ring is aging and deformed, it should be replaced with new ones. 2. The oil filter delivers clean engine oil to the diesel engine to enter the various sports pairs for lubrication, cooling and cleaning. The oil filter can be divided into three types: centrifugal oil filter, paper oil filter and metal slit filter. During maintenance, paper renewal, gap cleaning, centrifugal oil filter can not be "stagnation" when installed after cleaning. The inspection method is: when the rotor is installed, the rotor is forced to rotate, and after the hand is released, the rotor can continue to rotate for 2 to 3 turns, which is qualified. Then the fine filter is returned to the diesel engine for review, the diesel engine is started, and the medium speed is run to the water temperature. If the flame is extinguished above 70 °C, the sound of the rotor rotation can be heard on the shell side for 1 minute. 3. Diesel filter is a “transfer station” that filters out impurities in diesel oil and separates moisture. It provides clean diesel for diesel engines and provides protection for high-pressure oil pumps and oil nozzles. At present, the diesel filter for paper filter is commonly used on diesel engines, as long as it is replaced by the specified motorcycle hours. “Three filters” should be maintained for every 50 motorcycle hours, and the filter should be replaced within 150 motor hours to 200 motor hours. Otherwise, it will bring harm to the diesel engine and a series of chain reactions where the diesel engine can not work normally. Use environmentally friendly and energy-saving new technology 1. Purify diesel. On the basis of timely maintenance of diesel filters, in order to enhance the purification effect, it is recommended to use high-tech diesel purification equipment on fishing vessels. It can not only “pure” diesel, but also activate diesel molecules, improve molecular structure and improve combustion. Value, to achieve the purpose of energy efficiency. 2. Oil additive. Use energy-saving and environmentally friendly oil additives approved by the State Administration of Quality Supervision. Reasonable use of additives can be achieved in one fell swoop. One is energy conservation; the second is efficiency; the third is environmental protection.